The De Wildt Cheetah and Wildlife Centre was set up in 1971 in South Africa to provide care for wild cheetahs regularly trapped or injured by Namibian farmers. There are no known  The first release of Apple Inc.'s Mac OS X, the Mac OS X 10.0, was code-named "Cheetah"; the subsequent versions released before 2013 were all named after cats. In Iraq, cheetahs were reported from Basra in the 1920s. To train her cubs in hunting, the mother will catch and let go of live prey in front of her cubs. That is because they have a worse nocturnal sight as compared to other big cats hunting at night. Predation is the leading cause of mortality in cheetah cubs; a study showed that in areas with a low density of predators (such as Namibian farmlands) around 70% of the cubs make it beyond the age of 14 months, whereas in areas like the Serengeti National Park, where several large carnivores exist, the survival rate was just 17%.  The ranges of floaters averaged 777 km2 (300 sq mi) in the Serengeti to 1,464 km2 (565 sq mi) in central Namibia. But in some cases, older, injured, or inexperienced cats will stalk cows, sheep, and goats. A bite on the nape of the neck or the snout (and sometimes on the skull) suffices to kill smaller prey.  Mafdet, one of the ancient Egyptian deities worshiped during the First Dynasty (3100–2900 BC), was sometimes depicted as a cheetah. Cheetahs prey includes: gazelles (especially Thomson’s gazelles), impalas and other small to medium-sized antelopes, hares, birds, and rodents. The serval resembles the cheetah in physical build, but is significantly smaller, has a shorter tail and its spots fuse to form stripes on the back. It feeds on small- to medium-sized prey, mostly weighing under 40 kg (88 lb), and prefers medium-sized ungulates such as impala, springbok and Thomson's gazelles. The eyes are shut at birth, and open in four to 11 days. The rest of the body is covered with around 2,000 evenly spaced, oval or round solid black spots, each measuring roughly 3–5 cm (1.2–2.0 in). Gradually the understanding of cheetah ecology increased and their falling numbers became a matter of concern. He suggested it could be a cross between a leopard and a cheetah.  In a study in Serengeti, females were found to have a 95% success rate in breeding, compared to 20% recorded for North American captive cheetahs in another study. Note the nearly triangular skull, the deep chest and long limbs.  A similar meaning can be obtained by the combination of the Greek prefix a– (implying a lack of) and κῑνέω (kīnéō) meaning to move or set in motion.  The Iranian Cheetah Strategic Planning meet in 2010 formulated a five-year conservation plan for Asiatic cheetahs. Four subspecies are recognised. Baby cheetahs (called ‘cubs’) fall prey to lions, leopards, hyenas, wild dogs and eagles.  His son Jahangir wrote in his memoirs, Tuzk-e-Jahangiri, that only one of them gave birth. This subspecies occurs in Algeria, Benin, Burkina Faso and Niger. In the 84 samples that we analyzed, we identified a total of 14 different prey, including domestic animals, at moderate frequencies.  By 1987, the first major research project to outline cheetah conservation strategies was underway. Cheetah Behaviour. Newborn cubs might spit a lot and make soft churring noises; they start walking by two weeks. , Cheetahs appear to be less selective in habitat choice than other felids and inhabit a variety of ecosystems; areas with greater availability of prey, good visibility and minimal chances of encountering larger predators are preferred.  Cheetahs use their vision to hunt instead of their sense of smell; they keep a lookout for prey from resting sites or low branches. They typically begin with the hindquarters, and then progress toward the abdomen and the spine. Females can have their first litter at two to three years of age. This page was last edited on 30 November 2020, at 20:35.  The cheetah is thought to have experienced two population bottlenecks that greatly decreased the genetic variability in populations; one occurred about 100,000 years ago that has been correlated to migration from North America to Asia, and the second 10,000–12,000 years ago in Africa, possibly as part of the Late Pleistocene extinction event. In Tanzania, Cheetahs do hunt Zebras. Cheetahs tend to prefer hunting wild prey over killing livestock. The limbs of the cheetah are longer than what is typical for other cats its size; the thigh muscles are large, and the tibia and fibula are held close together making the lower legs less likely to rotate. Churring and chirping have been noted for their similarity to the soft and loud roars of the lion. , Extinct North American cheetah-like cats had historically been classified in Felis, Puma or Acinonyx; two such species, F. studeri and F. trumani, were considered to be closer to the puma than the cheetah, despite their close similarities to the latter. , In eastern Asia, records are confusing as regional names for the leopard and the cheetah may be used interchangeably. The coat is typically tawny to creamy white or pale buff and is mostly covered with evenly spaced, solid black spots.  Groups rest in grassy clearings after dusk.  A rough translation is "immobile nails", a reference to the cheetah's limited ability to retract its claws. The cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) is a large cat native to Africa and central Iran. read more Cheetah skeleton.  Prey preferences and hunting success vary with the age, sex and number of cheetahs involved in the hunt and on the vigilance of the prey.  The Range Wide Conservation Program for Cheetah and African Wild Dogs (RWCP) began in 2007 as a joint initiative of the IUCN Cat and Canid Specialist Groups, the Wildlife Conservation Society and the Zoological Society of London. To capture prey, cheetahs are capable of accelerating from 0 to 80 km/h (50 mph) in just three strides, with a maximum speed of 110 km/h (68.35 mph) in a few seconds.  The hair is mostly short and often coarse, but the chest and the belly are covered in soft fur; the fur of king cheetahs has been reported to be silky.  If a cub is the only male in a litter he will typically join an existing group, or form a small group of solitary males with two or three other lone males who may or may not be territorial. , The cheetah occurs mostly in eastern and southern Africa; its presence in Asia is limited to the central deserts of Iran, though there have been unconfirmed reports of sightings in Afghanistan, Iraq and Pakistan in the last few decades. , The coat is typically tawny to creamy white or pale buff (darker in the mid-back portion). In the 13th and the 14th centuries, the Yuan rulers bought numerous cheetahs from the western parts of the empire and from Muslim merchants.  Common diseases of cheetahs include feline herpesvirus, feline infectious peritonitis, gastroenteritis, glomerulosclerosis, leukoencephalopathy, myelopathy, nephrosclerosis and veno-occlusive disease. Shortage of prey and conflict with other species such as humans and large carnivores are other major threats. The mouth can not be opened as widely as in other cats given the shorter length of muscles between the jaw and the skull.  A few centuries ago the cheetah was abundant in India, and its range coincided with the distribution of major prey like the blackbuck. We suggest that cheetahs modulate their hunting speed to enable rapid turns, in a predator-prey arms race, where pace is pitted against agility. Cheetahs have been reported at elevations as high as 4,000 m (13,000 ft).  Fossil remains from Europe are limited to a few Middle Pleistocene specimens from Hundsheim (Austria) and Mosbach Sands (Germany). However, Thomas Allsen argues that the depicted animal might be a large dog.  In 2004, the Iranian Centre for Sustainable Development (CENESTA) conducted an international workshop to discuss conservation plans with local stakeholders. Weaning occurs at four to six months. Cheetahs tend to encounter conflict with farmers when the decline of their natural prey leads them to attack livestock, resulting in farmers killing them in retaliation. The slightly curved claws, shorter as well as straighter than those of other cats, lack a protective sheath and are partly retractable.  In Iran there were around 400 cheetahs before World War II, distributed across deserts and steppes to the east and the borderlands with Iraq to the west; the numbers were falling because of a decline in prey. Growls, hisses and moans are accompanied by multiple, strong hits on the ground with the front paw, during which the cheetah may retreat by a few metres. About 90% of cheetah cubs are killed during the first few weeks of life.  The pronounced tear streaks (or malar stripes), unique to the cheetah, originate from the corners of the eyes and run down the nose to the mouth. , In the 19th and 20th centuries, several cheetah specimens were described; some were proposed as subspecies. The mother is extremely vigilant at this stage; she stays within 1 km (0.62 mi) of the lair, frequently visits her cubs, moves them every five to six days, and remains with them after dark. Individuals on the periphery of the prey herd are common targets; vigilant prey which would react quickly on seeing the cheetah are not preferred. However, they seldom lean on or rub their flanks against each other.  Mating begins with the male approaching the female, who lies down on the ground; individuals often chirp, purr or yelp at this time. In 2016, the global cheetah population was estimated at around 7,100 individuals in the wild; it is listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List. In areas where the cheetah is the major predator (such as farmlands in Botswana and Namibia), activity tends to increase at night. Cubs born in the wild weigh 150–300 g (5.3–10.6 oz) at birth, while those born in captivity tend to be larger and weigh around 500 g (18 oz). Abel Chapman considered it a colour morph of the normally spotted cheetah. The Iranian population appears to have decreased from 60 to 100 individuals in 2007 to 43 in 2016, distributed in three subpopulations over less than 150,000 km2 (58,000 sq mi) in Iran's central plateau. In 1969 author Joy Adamson, of Born Free fame, wrote The Spotted Sphinx, a biography of her pet cheetah Pippa.  With 76% of its range consisting of unprotected land, the cheetah is often targeted by farmers and pastoralists who attempt to protect their livestock, especially in Namibia. Cheetahs inhabiting Serengeti, cheetahs prefer to prey in groups and with the collaboration take down 80-kilogram wildebeests; however, lone males typically hunt Thomson’s gazelles. , During the early 2000s scientists from the Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (Hyderabad) proposed a plan to clone Asiatic cheetahs from Iran for reintroduction in India, but Iran denied the proposal.  Moreover, the reduced viscosity of the blood at higher temperatures (common in frequently moving muscles) could ease blood flow and increase oxygen transport. At around 20 months, offspring become independent; mothers might have conceived again by then. According to the Ming Shilu, the subsequent Ming dynasty (14th to 17th centuries) continued this practice. A bleat indicates distress, for instance when a cheetah confronts a predator that has stolen its kill. Groups of cheetah devour the kill peacefully, though minor noises and snapping may be observed. The cheetah is threatened by several factors such as habitat loss, conflict with humans, poaching and high susceptibility to diseases. Females may also show marking behaviour but less prominently than males do. The extension of the vertebral column can add as much as 76 cm (30 in) to the stride length. Siblings may remain together for a few more months before parting ways. The cheetah can give up the chase if it is detected by the prey early or if it can not make a kill quickly. Noting this, palaeontologist Daniel Adams proposed Miracinonyx, a new subgenus under Acinonyx, in 1979 for the North American cheetah-like cats; this was later elevated to genus rank. Cheetahs are the only big cat that cannot roar. Rock carvings depicting cheetahs dating back to 2000–6000 years ago have been found in Twyfelfontein; little else has been discovered in connection to the taming of cheetahs (or other cats) in southern Africa.  Generation length of the cheetah is six years.  Illegal wildlife trade and trafficking is another problem in some places (like Ethiopia).  This in turn comes from Sanskrit: चित्रय kitra-ya meaning variegated, adorned or painted. In the Kruger National Park (South Africa) territories were much smaller.  In 1917, Reginald Innes Pocock placed the cheetah in a subfamily of its own, Acinonychinae, given its striking morphological resemblance to the greyhound as well as significant deviation from typical felid features; the cheetah was classified in Felinae in later taxonomic revisions. , This article is about the animal. The cubs might purr as the mother licks them clean after the meal. The giant cheetah (A. pardinensis), significantly larger and slower compared to the modern cheetah, occurred in Eurasia and eastern and southern Africa in the Villafranchian period roughly 3.8–1.9 mya. Unlike the big cats, the cheetah tends to occur in low densities typically between 0.3 and 3.0 adults per 100 km2 (39 sq mi)—these values are 10–30% of those reported for leopards and lions. Mother cheetahs give birth to four to eight cubs at a time.  Unlike other cats, the cheetah's canines have no gap behind them when the jaws close, as the top and bottom cheek teeth show extensive overlap; this equips the upper and lower teeth to effectively tear through the meat.  The claws are blunt due to lack of protection, but the large and strongly curved dewclaw is remarkably sharp. They are the major component of the diet in certain areas, such as Dama and Dorcas gazelles in the Sahara, impala in the eastern and southern African woodlands, springbok in the arid savannas to the south and Thomson's gazelle in the Serengeti. No Cheetahs do not eat humans. This reduces the risk of losing balance during runs, but compromises the ability to climb.  In the following years, as their natural habitat has been modified dramatically, cheetah populations across the region have become smaller and more fragmented.  To kill medium- to large-sized prey, the cheetah bites the prey's throat to suffocate it, maintaining the bite for around five minutes, within which the prey stops struggling. The cheetah is an apex or top level predator. Some females, generally mother and offspring or siblings, may rest beside one another during the day. They eat fast as they don’t have the strength to fight off larger predators such as lions and hyenas that will try to steal their kill. , Sharply contrasting with the big cats in its morphology, the cheetah shows several adaptations for prolonged chases to catch prey at some of the fastest recorded speeds. It diverged genetically from the southeast African cheetah 72,000–16,000 years ago.  A 1987 study showed that solitary and grouped males have a nearly equal chance of coming across females, but the males in coalitions are notably healthier and have better chances of survival than their solitary counterparts. They also take on impalas and other small to medium-sized antelopes. Territoriality is preferred only if females tend to be more sedentary, which is more feasible in areas with plenty of prey. Leopards instead use their … Adults typically weigh between 20 and 65 kg (44 and 143 lb). , The cheetah has a total of 30 teeth; the dental formula is 126.96.36.199.1.2.1.  Adams pointed out that North American and Old World cheetah-like cats may have had a common ancestor, and Acinonyx might have originated in North America instead of Eurasia.  The Cheetah Conservation Fund, founded in 1990 in Namibia, put efforts into field research and education about cheetahs on the global platform.  The reduced genetic variability makes cheetahs more vulnerable to diseases; however, the threat posed by infectious diseases may be minor, given the low population densities and hence a reduced chance of infection. Cheetas are fastest, but that only means when running on a strigh line. Males, sometimes even those in coalitions, fight among one another to secure access to the female. Among females, those in oestrus will show maximum urine-marking, and their excrement can attract males from far off. A coalition of three males occupied a territory measuring 126 km2 (49 sq mi), and the territory of a solitary male measured 195 km2 (75 sq mi). , Cheetahs are poor breeders in captivity, while wild individuals are far more successful; this has also been linked to increased stress levels in captive individuals. This allows cheetahs to rapidly regain their stamina after a chase.
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