These findings are encouraging, although rely on making salient to individuals ways in which outgroup members may be similar to them and this intervention may be particularly short-lived. A meta-analytic test of intergroup contact theory. Pew research highlights social, political and moral polarization among partisans, but more people are still moderates. Motyl, M. (in press). – provides evidence that indirect contacts with outgroup members can also help to reduce negative attitudes about the outgroup – but not as effectively as direct personal contacts can (see our study summaries here and here). One can opt for communication-based games that help enhance better interaction. This bias was eliminated when participants had monetary incentives to be correct about the other side. Rapport in conflict resolution: Accounting for how face-to-face contact fosters mutual cooperation in mixed-motive conflicts. Why do schools put up posters of … For example, efforts to improve interpersonal relations between members of ... these authors extend this work by discussing the role that intergroup contact may play during different phases of intergroup relationships, such as prior to, during, and following violent intergroup conflict. improving intergroup relations Oct 03, 2020 Posted By Stephen King Ltd TEXT ID 730aaf63 Online PDF Ebook Epub Library relations among youth as many times as it has been said it is no less true the future of america lies with its young people it is essential to give them every opportunity to Christ, O., Hewstone, M., Tausch, N., Wagner, U., Voci, A., Hughes, J., & Cairns, E. (2010). Groups being faced with superordinate goals requiring intergroup cooperation. Can friendships be bipartisan? In a series of studies, Motyl, Hart, and colleagues (2011) demonstrated that eliciting a sense shared humanity through depicting basic human activities (like eating dinner with one’s family) or asking people to reflect on positive or negative childhood experiences led to reduced implicit hostility against Arabs, reduced support for war, and increased support for using peaceful diplomatic means in resolving international disputes. According to the extended contact hypothesis, simply knowing that ingroup members have outgroup friends (extended contact), or observing these friendships vicariously (vicarious contact), can improve intergroup relations. Employees look to company management for cues on what is acceptable in the workplace. Selective Seeking of Mediated Content. (2011). Clarify Roles. Rather, for contact between groups to reduce prejudice, certain prerequisite conditions must be in place. Motyl, M., Hart, J., Pyszczynski, T., Weise, D., Cox, C., Maxfield, M., & Siedel, A. Drawing Attention to Global Climate Change Decreases Support for War. Participants watched video testimonials about others’ positive interracial contacts, improving their expectations and causing them to seek out more cross-race friendships in the following weeks. Mallett, R.K., & Wilson, T.D. Sherif, M., Harvey, O. J., White, B. J., Hood, W. R., & Sherif, C. W. (1961). In a novel highly-powered study, Ebersole and colleagues pit five different partisanship-reducing interventions against each other, compared to a control group: 1. self-affirmation (see section 2.1 above), 2. superordinate threats (see section 2.2 above), 3. knowing group membership last (so ingroup biases don’t affect first impressions), 4. observing civility in others, and 5. reducing zero-sum perceptions. (2014). Importantly, this effect was not limited to American college students. This review is a work in progress, and we will be adding to it continually as we summarize more findings and expand our intervention categories in 2015. Promoting a sense that outgroup members share basic human characteristics and desires may lead to improved intergroup relations, without any negative consequences for the individual. Intergroup relations can sometimes be strained by intolerance or a communication gap. One such issue concerned the dual goals of working to improve relations between conflicting groups on the one hand, and working to promote intergroup equality and social justice on the other. In addition, reducing moral certainty shows great promise for reducing extremism in ideological partisanship and other intergroup conflicts, as does emphasizing shared humanity and reducing zero-sum perceptions of intergroup contexts. Subtle priming of shared human experiences eliminates threat-induced negativity toward Arabs, immigrants, and peace-making. This could be done by priming financial or material self-interest, increasing the influence of moderates, or decreasing the influence of ideological and moral extremists in group contexts. With this in mind, we have been collecting and summarizing research on interventions designed to improve intergroup relations – regardless of what forms these groups, interventions, or relations take. Our goal is to educate the public about social science research on improving inter-group relations across moral divides. Political extremism is supported by an illusion of understanding. A diverse staff led by a management team from a variety of backgrounds will find it easier to resolve intergroup conflicts than a team that is dominated by one or two groups. There is clearly a lot more to be done. Annotated Bibliography: Using Superordinate Goals to Improve Intergroup Relations. Pew research highlights social, political and moral polarization among partisans, but more people are still moderates. – one of the classic texts of social psychology, this book first articulated the contact hypothesis. ; Rodolfo Mendoza-Denton; December 2010, BRYCS: Improving Ethnic and Racial Relations in the Schools; Harriett Romo; October 1997, About Stress Management Training Activities, How to Deal With HR Issues of Discrimination, Policies to Promote Diversity in the Workplace. Annotated Bibliography: Review Papers on Intergroup Relations and Intergroup Bias. Develop a numbering system that allows interviewers to grade candidates equally based on company needs. Motive attribution asymmetry for love vs. hate drives intractable conflict. However, most of the findings below don’t directly manipulate moralization, and so the evidence remains more indirect and suggestive for the time being. CivilPolitics.org. Cohen, G. L., Sherman, D. K., Bastardi, A., Hsu, L., McGoey, M., & Ross, L. (2007). improving intergroup relations Oct 06, 2020 Posted By Danielle Steel Publishing TEXT ID 730aaf63 Online PDF Ebook Epub Library Improving Intergroup Relations INTRODUCTION : #1 Improving Intergroup Relations ~ Improving Intergroup Relations ~ Uploaded By Danielle Steel, however creating more favorable intergroup attitudes may not be sufficient to improve intergroup – provides an argument that ideological opponents can put aside their differences and work together if they acknowledge the superordinate threats recognized by the other side (see also Haidt’s Asteroids Club project). There is suggestive evidence that intergroup relations can be improved by “de-moralizing” situations – that is, getting people to see intergroup situations in less moralized ways. Promoting cross-group interpersonal interactions, and 2. improve intergroup relations effectively—specifically among youth. Galinsky, A. D., & Moskowitz, G. B. Number of times cited according to CrossRef: 115. improving intergroup relations Oct 04, 2020 Posted By Dan Brown Library TEXT ID 730aaf63 Online PDF Ebook Epub Library Improving Intergroup Relations INTRODUCTION : #1 Improving Intergroup Relations ## Book Improving Intergroup Relations ## Uploaded By Dan Brown, attitudes and actions for social change most of the research on improving intergroup relations has CivilPolitics.org. An integrative theory of intergroup contact. Motive attribution asymmetry for love vs. hate drives intractable conflict. As a result, such media messages have the potential to improve intergroup relations, even perhaps absent any direct contact with the outgroup. “In‐Group Love” and “Out‐Group Hate” in Repeated Interaction Between Groups. The media has a great opportunity to use its influence to reduce prejudice by appealing to the public’s emotions. The boys quickly developed negative attitudes and stereotypes about members of the opposing team, and engaged in hostile intergroup actions such as looting each other’s cabins and burning each other’s team flags. Brown, R., & Hewstone, M. (2005). Because the very thought of intergroup contact often causes anxiety and stress due to fear of rejection, self-affirmation interventions have been shown to improve and encourage cross-group relationships as well, by minimizing this anticipatory anxiety. Develop recruiting and hiring policies that eliminate the potential for discrimination. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 14, 819-834. Annotated Bibliography: Reducing Moral Certainty to Improve Intergroup Relations. Annual Review of Psychology, 36, 219-243. Bridging the partisan divide: Self-affirmation reduces ideological closed-mindedness and inflexibility in negotiation. Lesson Plans on Transcending Self-Serving Biases, Interventions to Improve Intergroup Relations: What Works, What Shows Promise, and What this Means for Civil Politics. Policies can include omitting a candidate's name, ethnic background, age and religion from the hiring process. See our study summary here. A large amount of scientific literature in social psychology studies diversity ideologies as prejudice reduction strategies, most commonly in the context of racial groups and interracial interactions. Psychological Review, 105, 499-529. Those in the morality condition were more likely to support acts of violence and aggression against the outgroup (except the religious, who supported outgroup aggression in both conditions). In an intergroup cooperative economic game study, allowing the members of 3-person cooperative teams to express ingroup love reduced intergroup conflict. (2003). Understanding the psychological processes that shape intergroup relations and sometimes fuel bias and conflict can help inform interventions to improve intergroup relations. The effects of political ideology on peer relationships. We hope this summary can be of value for academics and non-academics alike (possibly also improving the relations between these two groups who so rarely talk to each other!). – reviews evidence that moral convictions can cause people to disregard due process and other safeguards of civil society, contributing to both terrorism and violations of civil liberties to stop terrorism. An effective form of indirect contact is extended contact. In this annotated bibliography I have tried to highlight what can be done about it – that is, what can be done to reduce partisanship, ideological extremism, ingroup bias, and intergroup strife. Improving Intergroup Relations Among Youth is the summary of the workshop, which provided an opportunity to learn about the work and preliminary findings of the 16 projects. – provides evidence that people attribute ingroup-love motivations to their own group, and outgroup-hate motivations to outgroups. This report reviews the knowledge base regarding the effectiveness of interventions designed to promote peaceful, respectful relations among youth of different ethnic groups. Tropp, L. R., & Mallett, R. K., Eds. the application of racial identity development theory in the classroom presents some of the finest existing programs to improve intergroup relations in educational settings. Iyer, R. (2014). (2011). Allport, G. W. (1954). Direct contact as a moderator of extended contact effects: Cross-sectional and longitudinal impact on outgroup attitudes, behavioral intentions, and attitude certainty. Rapport in conflict resolution: Accounting for how face-to-face contact fosters mutual cooperation in mixed-motive conflicts. Why the centre cannot hold in America, Europe, and psychology, Bridging the Divide between Sensitivity to Minorities and Free Speech, Helping People Sympathize with both Cops and Minorities, Bridging the Divide Between Religious Liberty and Marriage Equality, How to Make Real Progress Against Trump’s Incivility, The Village Square Helps Liberals Understand that Conservatives are indeed Good People Too. Most of the research on political partisanship – and on intergroup conflict more generally – details how pervasive and intractable these phenomena can be. Black Tuesday: The Psychological Impact of 9/11. This highly informative book describes in rich detail a wide variety of programs designed to improve intergroup relations. Encourage your managers to discuss intergroup issues with employees on a regular basis to keep them updated on any potential problems. Another option is the Jungle Escape, a high-energy team building game that promotes trust and camaraderie. Skitka, L. J., & Mullen, E. (2002). Rather, this effect was shown for liberals and conservatives in the United States and replicated in Israel and Palestine on non-student populations during the 2009 bombings, and in Iran among fundamentalist Muslims [from Motyl, in press]. Your company should work on strategies to improve intergroup relations to maintain a productive work environment. Strategies for Improving Intergroup Relations New Employee Orientation. ^ Best Book Improving Intergroup Relations ^ Uploaded By James Patterson, this article examines psychological processes of social perception and cognition that are integral to intergroup relations and discusses how these forces can be redirected to improve intergroup it provides the only comprehensive review and compilation of – demonstrated that prompting people to consider the potential negative consequences of global warming led to improved intergroup relations in terms of support for using extreme military tactics, support for war, support for peace-making and diplomacy, and support for the use of terrorist attacks. Pyszczynski, T., Motyl, M., Vail III, K. E., Hirschberger, G., Arndt, J., & Kesebir, P. (2012). Perspective-taking: decreasing stereotype expression, stereotype accessibility, and in-group favoritism. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 25, 188-195. Since this landmark demonstration study, social psychologists have continued to find that superordinate goals improve intergroup relations, and the lessons from Robber’s Cave are now being applied to partisan gridlock as well. (2014). potential to improve intergroup relations in two different albeit interrelated ways: by enabling friendships and reducing prejudice. Brewer, M. B., & Kramer, R. M. (1985). Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, 10, 276-292. Established Policies to Remedy Discrimination in Hiring Women & Minorities, Effects of Multiculturalism on Job Performance & the Workplace, Teaching Tolerance: Strategies for Reducing Racial and Ethnic Prejudice: Essential Principles for Program Design, The Leadership Conference: Building One Nation: A Study of What is Being Done Today in Schools, Neighborhoods and the Workplace; 1996, "Psychology Today"; Are We Born Racist? ), Bridging Ideological Divides: Claremont Series in Applied Social Psychology. It provides the only comprehensive review and compilation of techniques of improving intergroup relations. 2.1.1. – provides a meta-analytic test of the contact hypothesis, and finds that Allport was right: intergroup contact really does reduce intergroup prejudice. With a little help from my cross-group friend: Reducing anxiety in intergroup contexts through cross-group friendships. 2. The most tolerant form of intergroup relations is pluralism, in which no distinction is made between minority and majority groups, but instead there’s equal standing. Superordinate goals in the reduction of intergroup conflict. Presented to the Society for Personality and Social Psychology annual conference, Las Vegas, NV. – provides experimental evidence that perspective-taking can reduce both ingroup favoritism and stereotyping of outgroup members. And Sherif, M. (1958). Increasing positive intergroup contact. In my opinion, interventions designed to reduce moral certainty (and moralization in general) show the most promise for reducing intergroup hostility, and represent the area where future research is most sorely needed. (In fact, ideological bias seems to be even stronger than racial bias in the U.S. – see study summaries here and here.) Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78(4), 708. – experimentally induced cross-group friendships between white and Latino students, and showed that this reduced cortisol stress reactivity and increased intergroup interactions among those highest in race-based anxiety and implicit racial prejudice. Pilecki, A. Around the maypole: Religions foster group-focused morality. Much of this work has focused on how to structure conditions of the social situation so that contact between groups will lead to positive intergroup outcomes, such as establishing equal status between groups, showing that their interactions are supported by institutional authorities, and having them work together cooperatively toward common goals. There is suggestive evidence that intergroup relations can be improved by “de-moralizing” situations – that is, getting people to see intergroup situations in less moralized ways. Bridging the partisan divide: Self-affirmation reduces ideological closed-mindedness and inflexibility in negotiation. [from Motyl, in press], 3.3. What Works: Intervention Recommendations. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 37, 255–343. New York: APA Books. For more on this study, see our study summary here, materials here, and study information on the Open Science Framework here. ~ Improving Intergroup Relations ~ Uploaded By Danielle Steel, however creating more favorable intergroup attitudes may not be sufficient to improve intergroup relations in an enduring way harmony may sometimes reinforce the status quo of intergroup hierarchy rather than motivate actions to address inequities effective Paluck, 2006). ~~ PDF Improving Intergroup Relations ~~ Uploaded By John Grisham, this article examines psychological processes of social perception and cognition that are integral to intergroup relations and discusses how these forces can be redirected to improve intergroup improving intergroup relations focuses on emerging research directions for Changing Children’s Intergroup Attitudes Toward Refugees: Testing Different Models of Extended Contact. Direct contact as a moderator of extended contact effects: Cross-sectional and longitudinal impact on outgroup attitudes, behavioral intentions, and attitude certainty. Having a diverse management team also helps ensure that the promotion of employees is based on performance and merit and that all employees have the opportunity to qualify for managerial positions. Expose children to positive role models of intergroup friendships. Akagawa, this article examines psychological processes of social perception and cognition that are integral to intergroup relations and discusses how these forces can be redirected to improve intergroup attitudes and actions for social change most of the research on improving Intergroup relations: insights from a theoretically integrative approach. Superordinate goals in the reduction of intergroup conflict. A good strategy for developing a tolerant workplace is to start at the new employee orientation. Hold regular staff diversity training sessions where your management team can address intergroup issues and suggest possible resolutions. This idea has been supported by decades of research, from quite minimal cross-group communications to experimentally-induced cross-group friendships. At CivilPolitics.org, we are focused on ways to get ideological opponents to stop hating each other so much and start working together, for a more productive democracy. – academic volume on improving intergroup relations, with chapters by different scholars on topics like expectations and inclusion in cross-group interactions, and several applications to postconflict reconciliation in different parts of the world. 2.2.1. Pettigrew, T. F., & Tropp, L. R. (2006). Graham, J., Iyer, R., Haidt, J., & Motyl, M. S. (2010, January). Encourage your managers to practice patience and sensitivity when dealing with intergroup issues. By eliminating bias from the recruiting and hiring process, each candidate feels she has a fair chance at getting the job. For instance, preventing global warming is not just a goal for any one specific nation, but is a superordinate goal requiring cooperation between many nations. – shows that ideology and partisanship can make personal relationships particularly difficult, but that those with positive interpartisan friendships have more positive attitudes to their ideological opponents. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books. Page-Gould, E., Mendoza-Denton, R., & Tropp, L. R. (2008). As a result, such media messages have the potential to improve intergroup relations, even perhaps absent any direct contact with the outgroup. One prerequisite for media to influence us is, of course, that we are exposed to those media. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90, 751-783. Selective Seeking of Mediated Content One prerequisite for media to influence us is, of course, that we are exposed to those media. Intergroup relations: insights from a theoretically integrative approach. You can hire a diversity training specialist to do this portion of the training to allow an expert to present the ways in which your workplace practices tolerance and diversity.
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